• Replacing Fujitsu S2110's CPU

    The consecutive article about disassembling Fujitsu S2110. This time we will go to replace the CPU or completely take apart this laptop; the thing is I got a newer model of turion 64, MT-37--2.0GHz 1MB L2 Cache--to replace the old one, MT-28 which is 1.6GHz 512kB L2 Cache. It's just a bit better in term of performance, its power consumption is about the same--25W--though.

    I found that taking all part apart is not that hard. The hardest part is to know how to detach the hinge cover and once you knew; that's it. If not, you'd better read this article first. What you really have to do in this time is to know where all the screws were and put them back in the right place. I scratched the screws position in the paper for you guys already.

    What you have to know for this diagram is I classified types of screws by what they look and how long it is. You may see the right figure to know what A), B), etc.. (even though it's not that clear, you will get an idea :-P) Now I use color to make them more distinguishable. I hope it's easier to get.

    << previous (press o) | (press p) next >>
    SlideShow
    1. If you want to completely take apart, my sugguestion is to unscrew all back first. (Don't forget to keep your screws organized)
    CAUTION:

    for the screws that hold the case (B-type/blue), DON’T screw them too tight at all because they will break your case.

    For another model, you may find out how at Repair4Laptop

  • Replacing Fujitsu S2110 keyboard

    This article is 15 step-by-step to replace S2110 keyboard, you may find it useful or use as an idea for your model, esp. Fujitsu that has almost the same method.

    << previous (press o) | (press p) next >>
    SlideShow
    1. my old keyboard that doesn't match with S2110 in term of color

    I will show how to replace another part of this notebook in near future, it might be another model as well. I hope this article help anyone who wants to do on our own!

    For another model, you may find out how at Repair4Laptop

  • DIY NAS

    Homemaded Network Attached Storage: the way you save your bucks but not your bill. Ask for a fast network attached storage, we do it ourselves. With the inspiration from the article “DIY NAS Smackdown” by smallnetbuilder.com and requirement to store much more things, DIY NAS comes to my mind. The first thing we have to know about NAS is what it is exactly. NAS is a computer which does only a purpose, sharing a storage. So, it could be very limited computer such as 300MHz CPU, 128MB RAM, hard drive, and NIC. That means you can reuse your old computer in a garrage as a file server for your home network. Because of this small requirement, recent NAS products like LaCie Ethernet mini, Buffalo Storage Station, etc, come in very small factor as same as Firewire, USB Storage. But instead of only a controller that transform internal interface into external interface, this is a whole computer set with embedded OS that is the point to differentiate the performance and usuability of each product.

    an OS that requires to run on NAS can be not only embedded OS but full one as well. However, in order to cut down the product cost, no one braves enough to put Windows XP Professional Edition into its product. Like LaCie, they have two OSs for their products which are their tiny Linux distribution for low-end product and Windows embeded for high-end product that needs an agressive performance. This time, we will pay attention to how boost our DIY NAS with nice Linux distro, Ubuntu, and Windows XP to make a comparison. The thing that makes NAS differs in term of performance is packages that send over the network has headers which is different by each OS and protocol and how they handle data over network.

    For you guys who don’t familiar with Linux, you have to know Samba, the service to share a file over Windows network. You will have to set up only a few things to make it work. About the installation, Ubuntu team does make it very easy for everyone, I’m sure.

    Step 1: Choosing the hardware

    I will start with all parts building this NAS; my purpose is doing NAS, HTTP, MySQL, and FTP server. The best thing of being in the US is there are a lot of rebate throughout the year. Sometimes it’s mail-in rebate which is not really good; sometimes it’s an instant rebate. That’s really awesome. Every parts I got is rebated-stuff. Here we go:-

    AMD Opteron 144 1MB L2 Cache 1.6@2.0GHz $69.99 
    256MB PC3200 RAM (from sidewalk garbage, so it's free)  
    M/B Foxconn WinFast 6150K8MA-8EKRS $69.99 
    DVD-RW SATA Sony NEC $31.99 
    2*Seagate Barracuda 160GB SATA-2 8MB buffer ST160812AS-RK $39.99*2 
    Ultra mATX case $59.99 
    --------------------------------------------------------------- 
    Total: $69.99+59.99+31.99+79.98+59.99 = $328.07 
    

    I think that’s reasonable price: Gigabit Ethernet, nVidia GeForce 6150 onboard, Firewire, RAID 0, 1, 5 (which I cannot use because of only 2 harddrives I have & not any available place for another one) However, if you have your old computer, you might have to buy only any Ethernet NIC (no matter it’s 10/100 or gigabit) and hard disk drive that is big enough. Then you will have to spend less than a hundred to get 400GB NAS. Sound good, right?

    Step 2: Installing an OS and setting sharing folder

    How we set up the Ubuntu server. The reason why I choose Ubuntu server edition is it’s light and Ubuntu community claims that this version performs better in server hardware (ha ha maybe they tweak for Opteron, I hope). Other might prefer desktop version which included GUI, honestly so do I but it doesn’t matter how beautiful it is when using as server. I went through this following step for installation:- - go get Ubuntu Server Installation CD at http://ubuntu.com (now it should be Feisty Fawn - 7.04) choose CPU architecture you have to get the best result - burn into disc - boot with that CD, it will start menu and select install Ubuntu server. - follow the instructions, you have to build a partition for it at least 2 partition: 1 ext3, 1 swap (about 2 time of RAM) (actually, there is an automatic option as well) - after finished installation, then install samba server by login and type the following commands:-

    sudo apt-get install samba 
    sudo apt-get install smbfs
    

    This is all set for installing samba. Next, you have to config your share directory and decide what directory to share (mostly in /home/), you could create new directory by command below.

    mkdir /home/xxx
    chmod 0777 /home/xxx
    cd /etc/samba 
    sudo nano smb.conf
    

    change the line

    ;security = user
    

    to

    security = share  ## without ';' 
    

    and change user to share, then go to the end of file and add this

    [share] ## name for sharing 
    path = /home/share ## whatever directory you want 
    available= yes 
    browseable= yes  
    public =yes 
    writable= yes 
    create mask = 0777 
    directory mask = 0777 
    force user = nobody 
    force group = nogroup
    

    This is for non-security sharing which is the fastest one. So, if you want others, go for it. However, in order to show how good the OS handle the data, this is the best way to find a distinction.

    Step 3: Testing

    I choose to test with iozone, let’s see what happens.

    what I have so far is all based on 100Mbps:-

    lacie – LaCie Ethernet Disk mini 250GB, Linux Embedded - 2.4.25-lacie6, 266MHz CPU, 32MB RAM, 250GB 7200rpm 8MB cache ubuntu – Ubuntu 6.06 LTS server, my system above, No RAID because Ubuntu doesn’t support my fake RAID winxp64 – Windows XP x64 Profession, RAID 0 (nVRAID - onboard)

    for limited time, this is all I have tested. When I get more stuffs, we might see more details.

       

       As you know from the review, Lacie Ethernet disk mini is low-end product, so the performance is not that good. But comparing to how convenient & green–low power consumption–it is, it’s still great.

       

       Ubuntu has so impressive result. Larger record size, the faster transfer rate you will get. By the way, the common record size that transfers through network is 64kB. So we might use 64kB result as a reference. About reading rate, you will see the effect of larger record size but not that much. I think it’s quite good in 100Mbps environment.

       

       Windows XP x64 is a choice that doesn’t come to my mind at first. I just want to find a reference for comparison with others. However, Windows XP 64bit performs so fantastic on writing test. You will see the missing data in some points; that mean that transfer rate is over 200kB. I have no idea why this happens. As soon as I found the answer. I let you know. About reaing rate, it’s about the same as Ubuntu. Just OS of you choice. Free or not is all up to you :-)

    This is the first part of NAS testing, you will get more idea what is NAS. Next time, we will see how to tweak and get the best performance.

    Step 4: Conclusion

    There is no question that Windows XP x64 is far superior than others, especially in writing test. It doesn’t have large record size effect on reading test as well. I have tested several times to make sure if the rate is right; all I get is about the same. That make me wonder how write speed is that high, some are much over the 100Mbps limit. But it costs $140 more, so it’s up to you what platform are on your way. For me, I won’t select yet. I have to test on FreeBSD which supports this RAID and see what’s going on.

    However, write and read rate of Ubuntu w/o RAID 0 are acceptable, especially read rate that’s better than WinXP64 for unknown reason (at least for me). It should be enough for NAS for sure. As soon as you upgrade the system to gigabit ethernet, it will show its potential underneath :-P Have fun to work on your NAS.

  • Lacie 250GB Ethernet Disk mini

    It’s such a long time I was looking for an extra storage solution which works flawlessly, doesn’t have to avoid data loss from unplugging unintentionally, and has security feature. Now It’s all come in NAS - Network Attached Storage.

    Since a network came to be the new role of computer system in home, network-related devices cost has been deceased dramatically. For example, in the past, a printer server was really expensive, so when you want all your computers in a house to print something out; you have to share printer from the computer that directly connects with the printer. That is sometimes painful because you have to turn that computer all the times to make sure that you don’t have to go downstair just to turn on the computer and go back and forth just to print only one page long. Now, with sub $200 printer you have options to use either ethernet or USB.

    NAS is another network-related device which makes your life easier. You don’t have to worry about space on your desk or if an USB port has enough power for external hard drive or the important thing like data loss from unplug without eject the device. Basically, all NASs work by connecting with a network, then every computer in the network sees it as file server or you can access it through your browser via HTTP server or FTP server. You don’t even have to install anything on any platform you use. You may have to login to access data depending on your own setting.

    For Lacie 250GB Ethernet disk mini, the reason why it named, “mini,” is its small capacities compared to other models from this company.

    LaCie Ethernet Disk mini 250GB specification
    Item Number : 300938U
    Capacity : 250 GB
    Interface : Fast Ethernet 10/100 & Hi-Speed USB 2.0
    Rotational Speed (rpm) : 7200
    Cache Size : 8MB
    Processor/RAM : 266Mhz / 32MB SDRAM
    Interface Transfer Rate : Ethernet: 100 Mbits/s; USB 2.0: 480 Mbits/s
    Network Setting : No drivers needed, no server required
    DHCP auto IP assignment
    Manual configuration through web-based management
    Network Protocols : TCP/IP, Windows: SMB/CIFS, Mac: AppleTalk/AFP v3.1, FTP, HTTP
    Network Compatibility : Apple Bonjour Protocol; WINS server
    Dimensions (WxHxD) : 160 x 173 x 44 mm / 6.3 x 6.82 x 1.734 in
    Weight : 1500g / 52.95 oz
    Supported OS : Windows 98SE*; Windows 2000; Windows Me*; Windows? XP (SP1 & SP2); Mac OS 9*/X, Intel processor Mac, Linux 2.4 & higher*
    * Only on the Ethernet network
    System Requirements : Ethernet connection 10/100; USB 2.0 port (USB 1.1 compatible); Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.01 or higher, Netscape, Safari
    Comments : 1 gigabyte = 1,000,000,000 bytes. Once formatted, the actual available storage capacity varies depending on operating environment (typically 10-15% less).
    Box Content : Ethernet Cable, HI-Speed USB 2.0 cable (USB 1.1 compatible), External Power Supply, Drive stand for upright desktop use, LaCie Utilities CD-ROM with online Manual & SilverKeeper software (for Mac) for automatic backup and file verification, Quick Install Guide

    As you can see, you may wonder why it has a CPU. The fact is this kind of device needs to have CPU and OS to make it work too.

     
       For this model, its OS is Linux embedded, just to work as small servers. Let see how to use it in pictures below:-
       
       It’s really simple, just plug and play. When I first got this NAS, the package from Buy.com & LaCie is quite nice and over-protection which is good. In case you don’t have hub or router yet, you can plug it to computer directly. It will generate IP automatically by DHCP. How convenient it is.
         
       At first, I used it as USB Harddisk for a faster transfer. I found that Windows XP saw it as removable disk like USB flash drive, not hard disk drive as other external hard drives. Unfortunately, it required password to accesss data. I really impressed for what Lacie does about security. Then I moved about 27GB into this drive; I don’t know whether it’s fast or not because I think it’s the same as other external drive, that is, its speed is limited by USB capability. After that I had a little test to show how good it is.
     
       14-15MBps ~ 120Mbps same level as other USB external drive I have, I think it should be the limit of USB. So when I had finished moving all my stuffs, I changed it to connect the network (100Mbps Ethernet) instead.
       

    Setting up

    Actually, you don’t have to set anything up to make it work; however, in that case, you’d got to use default value to log it on. This drive has a web-based manager that you can set anything from what protocol you want to enable, which directory you want to share, to which user has more or less permission.

    You can access an admin page by its IP or an URL, “edmini.local.”

         
       it’s flexible ebough for anyone, I think. In share page, you can set “guest user” as well. so, you don’t have to login to access at all if you just want to look up your files, read-only. Whether you use Mac, Linux, or Windows, it’s all the same.
     
       in case you use Mac OSX, you could make connect to this drive by “smb://edmin.local.” or “cifs://edmin.local.” or you can make automator do it for you!
     

    Performance

     
       Fortunately, it’s slower due to the connection but I can say that it’s enough. I don’t think 6MB/s (52Mbps) is slow. I test by watching Pooh’s Huffalump movie, 352 x 240, 96kbps, divX; it works great and smooth. But when I watched Fantastic Four, 624 x 256, Xvid, 127kbps, 23 frame/s, it’s slightly lag.

    Conclusion

    This is my best solution for extra storage so far. Easy, fast, and secure are included in this drive. All I can tell is if you want some extra storage and you have more than one computer in your house, I bet NAS is the most suitable solution. About working condition of this drive, it produces little sound because of hard drive and little fan on the back; nonetheless, you won’t notice this unless you sleep and turn anything off but this one. For me, $99 for 250GB is really worth compare to 320GB at the same price but USB connection only.

      Pros   Cons
    • Network Attached Storage • a bit expensive
    • Security feature

    Reference: Product Page at LaCie.com

  • เปลี่ยนลำดับความสำคัญของเครือข่ายใน Win XP, 2k and Mac OS X

    ครั้งนี้ต้องมาทำความเข้าใจกันก่อนว่ามันคืออะไรกันแน่ เพราะว่า ผมค่อนข้างมั่นใจได้ว่า คนส่วนใหญ่ไม่น่าจะต้องทำอะไรกับเรื่องนี้ครับ นี่เป็นการจัดการเรียงลำดับความสำคัญของเครือข่ายที่เครื่องเราใช้งานอยู่ ไม่ได้เกี่ยวว่า เครื่อข่ายจะเชื่อมต่อได้รึยัง? IP เป็นอะไร? ใช้ DHCP server รึป่าว? แต่จะเป็นสิ่งที่มาหลังพวกคำถามนี้ทั้งหมด โดยจะต้องเชื่อมต่อเครือข่ายให้สมบูรณ์ก่อน และปัญหามันจะเกิดตรงที่ มันมีหลายเครือข่าย ที่ดันไป intersection กันซักที่ (เช่น ทั้ง 2 เครือข่ายนั้นเชื่อมต่อ net ทั้งคู่) หรือไม่ก็ได้ แล้ว OS ไม่สามารถที่จะลำดับความสำคัญ (หรือ ความเร็ว) ที่เข้าถึงเป้าหมายได้ดีพอครับ เช่น

       ตัวอย่างที่ 1: เราเอา laptop ไปที่ office แล้วจำเป็นต้องเชื่อมต่อ LAN กับที่ office เราเพื่อที่จะดึงข้อมูล โดยเครือข่ายนี้อาจจะต้องใช้ proxy server หรืออะไรก็แล้วแต่ที่ทำให้การเข้า net ไม่สะดวกสบายนัก เราก็เลยลอง search หา Wireless LAN เผื่อจะมีใครใจดีเปิดไว้ข้างๆตึก สรุปว่าดันเจอและ net เร็ว-แรงมากซะด้วย หรือ
       ตัวอย่างที่ 2 คือ เราอยากจะเปิด access point ที่บ้านเราให้มันสะดวกสบายกับตัวเองและคนอื่น 55 แต่เราก็ต้องการ security โดย ทำ LAN อีกวงไว้ในบ้านเป็นระบบปิด ไม่มีใครเข้าได้และไม่มี bridge เชื่อม 2 เครือข่ายนี้เข้าด้วยกันครับ

       ปัญหาของระบบเช่นนี้คือ OS มันจะสับสนว่ามันควรจะไปหาที่เครือข่ายไหนก่อน ยิ่งทั้ง 2 เครือข่ายมี DHCP server แยกกัน จะทำให้เข้าไม่ได้ทั้งคู่ หรือเข้าได้บ้าง ไม่ได้บ้าง หรือช้าๆผิดปกติ โดยปกติแล้วตัว OS จะอิงตามความเร็วของเครือข่าย ซึ่ง LAN ตามทฤษฎีแล้วก็เร็วกว่า Wireless LAN อยู่แล้วครับ แม้จะ 100Mbps กับ 108Mbps WLAN ก็เถอะครับ wired มักจะทำได้ดีกว่าอยู่แล้ว OS มันก็เลยจะมีค่า default ให้วิ่งไปตาม LAN ซะเป็นส่วนใหญ่ อย่างในตัวอย่างแรก ปัญหาก็คือ net ที่ควรจะเร็วได้ ก็กลายเป็นช้าไป ตัวอย่างที่ 2 ก็กลายเป็นใช้ net ไม่ได้ซะอย่างนั้น เพราะมัวแต่ไปหาที่ loop ที่ไม่ได้มี net

    การแก้ไข:

    สำหรับ Mac OSX ก็ง่ายอย่างมากๆ โดยเข้า System Preferences >> Network >> Show: Network Port Configurations ก็จะได้ตามรูปครับ

     
        ที่เราต้องทำก็คือจัดการเรียงๆ มันเข้าไปให้ตามใจเรา การทำเช่นนี้ ไม่ใช่ว่าทำ bridge นะครับ เพียงแต่ให้มันรู้ว่า มันควรจะวิ่งไปหาอันไหนก่อน ถ้าไม่มีค่อยเลื่อนไปลำดับต่อไป โดยทั้ง 2 เครือข่ายก็ยังแยกกันโดยอิสระอยู่ดี

        สำหรับ Windows XP, 2000 นั้นก็จะมี Adapters and Bindings Setting อยู่ใน Network Connections (run “ncpa.cpl”) >> menu: Advanced >> Advanced Setting ตามรูปครับ
     
        ก็จะคล้ายๆกับ Mac OS X แต่ปัญหาก็คือ windows มันเข้าใจยากกว่า ตรงที่มันยังมีอีก factor ที่ดันสำคัญกว่า นั่นก็คือ interface metric ที่จะอึงกับความเร็วในการเชื่อมต่อครับ ในกรณีที่ 2 เครือข่ายที่เราสนใจเป็น medium ตัวเดียวกัน (เช่น ใช้ LAN 2 loop) ใช้ใน Adapters and Bindings setting ก็เพียงพอครับ แต่ถ้าคนละ medium ก็ไม่พอ เราต้องมาดูค่าของ route metric ก่อนครับว่าเค้าแบ่งกันยังไง

    Windows XP automatically sets relative route metrics based on link speeds such as the following.

    Metric Description
    10 Metric for a connection speed that is more than 200 megabits per second (Mbps)
    20 Metric for a connection speed that is between 4 Mbps and 20 Mbps
    30 Metric for a connection speed that is between 4 Mbps and 20 Mbps
    40 Metric for a connection speed that is between 500 kilobits per second (Kbps) and 4 Mbps
    50 Metric for a connection speed that is less than or equal to 500 Kbps

    For more information and for an updated table that contains the link speeds and the metrics for Windows XP Service Pack 2-based computers, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    note: นี่จาก Microsoft: Help and Support ครับ ดู link ได้ข้างล่าง หากสนใจข้อมูลเพิ่มเติม

       คิดกันง่ายๆ คือ เรากำหนดตามความเร็ว มันก็จะเรียงให้อัตโนมัติ โดยเราจะต้องเข้าไปแก้ใน Network Connections >> คลิ๊กขวาที่ Network Interface ที่ต้องการ >> Properties >> Click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) >> Properties >> General tab: Click Advanced >> แล้วก็เอาติ๊กที่ Automatic metric ออก แล้วก็ใส่ค่าตามที่ต้องการครับ (ตามรูป)

     
       เท่านี้เราก็จะเชื่อมต่อหลายๆ network ได้โดยไม่มีปัญหาแล้วครับ

    ปล. เรื่อง IP conflict หรืออะไรก็แล้วแต่ก็ระวังด้วย ก่อนจัดการเรื่องนี้ ก็ควรจะเชื่อมต่อให้เรียบร้อยก่อนครับ ;-P

    Reference::
    - Microsoft: Help and Support: How to change the binding order of network adapters in Windows XP and in Windows 2000